Colonization

The Biggest Con in the World!

White people are the illegal immigrants on Turtle Island (the Native American name for our continent) and brown people from below the Rio Grande River are Native Americans. Yet white people refer to themselves as legal and native to this land and the Natives as illegal aliens and illegal immigrants. 


It is the greatest con in the world when Natives have become the illegal immigrants and the illegal immigrants have become the natives. 

Stop the ignorance!

Mexicans, Identify Native American! 

Euro Borders

They don't want you to know the truth because then you will have a say on your land, rights on your land, a claim to your land, and will no longer be seen as an illegal immigrant! We are not immigrants! We have always been here! We are migrants free to roam the length and breadth of our ancestral land that has been scarred with European invader boarders and colonies called Canada, USA and Mexico. 

The Americas - Stolen by Europeans

The American Continents

The Americas are comprised of North American and South American. They have been invaded and occupied by and stolen by Europeans thru pestilence, pillaging, genocide, and rape. 

America vs. the United States

"America" is NOT a country. The U.S. is a country and was built on top of stolen Native American land. It is currently under occupation by colonizers from Europe, British/English.

Meso-America vs. Mexico

Meso-America is also part of the North American continent and is NOT a country. "Mexico" is a country and was built on top of stolen Native American land. 

It is currently squatted on by foreigners from Europe, Spain.

South America

South America is also an American continent of the western hemisphere and is also occupied by the ancestors of the invaders from across the sea.

First Nations People vs Canada

Native Americans lived in the Canadian area prior to European/French invasions and occupation. 

Alaska

Alaska was also home to Indigenous people of the Americas until European explorers/Russians colonized.

Genocide by the US Government - native american history

White Washing The Native

"It seems to me one of the ways of getting rid of the indian question is just this of intermarriage, and the gradual fading our of the indian blood, the whole quality and charactor of the aborigine disappears, they lose all of the traditions of the race, there is no longer any occasion to maintain the tribal relations, and there is then every reason why they shall go and take their place as white people do everywhere." 


- Anthony Higgins, a U.S. Senator from Delaware, in 1895 congressional testimony. 

$$ FOR INDIAN HEADS

Fifty pounds per head for every Indian man, and Twenty five pounds for any Indian Woman or Child, Male or Female, under the age of Fourteen Years, taken or brought in prisoner or proof of death per indian scalp of hair produced and delivered"

CHRISTIANITY WAS FORCED UPON NATIVE AMERICANS

The early white Christians did not convert Native Americans into Christians to save their souls so that Native Americans may join them in Heaven - in the afterlife. This is irrefutably, because they perceived that Native Americans had no souls and that Heaven was for whites only. 


The true self-serving reason was to indoctrinate the image of a white god into the Native’s minds. This makes many Brown people feel inferior and act subservient towards white people. This happens often without most Brown indigenous people even realizing it. 

In 1873 the American government killed 1.5 million buffalo

To starve the Native Americans so they would come more dependent on the American government.

Kill the Indian and Save The Man - Captain Richard Henry Pratt

Stated Purpose of the BIA Boarding Schools: 


"Assimilate American Indian children into the American culture by placing them in institutions where they are forced to reject their own culture."


Photo: "Thomas Moore" before and after his entrance into the Regina Indian Residential School in Saskatchewan in 1874

Pierre Elliot Trudeau, Rene Levesque, First Ministers Conference 1983

"If you no longer speak your language and no longer practice your culture, then you have no right to demand aboriginal rights from us, because you are assimilated with the ruling power."

Blood Quantum Extinction

Set Up To Eventually Kill The Indian by the BIA, US Government

Did you know that the Native American Indian People in the United States of America have to prove what fraction or degree of "Indian Blood Quantum" or "Blood Quantum" that they have in order to be acknowledged and recognized by the United States Federal Government. They are deliberately and intentionally racially discriminated against because they are the only ethnic group or race of human beings in the United States of America that have to document and record their complete "Indian" ancestry and "Indian" lineage to the Bureau Of Indian Affairs (B.I.A.) which is an agency of the United States Federal Government. They will actually recieve a "Pedigree Slip" called a Certificate Degree of Indian Blood (C.D.I.B.) with their fraction or degree of "Indian Blood Quantum" or "Blood Quantum" on a piece of paper: 3/4-1/2-1/4-1/8-1/16-1/32. This will ensure that if they do not have children with another "Indian" their ethnic group or race of human beings will continue to decrease and become more extinct while every other ethnic group or race of human beings will continue to increase and become more distinct. The Native American Indian People in the United States of America must eliminate and eradicate this form of paper genocide and ethnocide because we do not need to prove to anyone on a piece of paper, like an animal or a breed, that we carry the "Indigenous" blood of our ancestors. 


- JAMES DAVID AGUIRRE

Colonialsim

INVASION of AMERICA

Naming of the Americas. The re-naming of America occurred shortly after Christopher Columbus's voyage to the Americas in 1492. It is generally accepted that the name derives from Amerigo Vespucci, the Italian explorer, who explored the new continents in the following years. 


- Wikipedia 

GENOCIDE

Between 1519 and 1521 the Spanish, under the leadership of conquistador Hernan Cortes, conquered the Aztec Empire. Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes and his men landed on the Mexican coast on April of 1519. 


The Aztecs that weren't killed were forced to convert to the Catholic religion of the Spaniards and to abandon the Aztecs religion. Destroying codexes (books) so that there would be no future problems with conversion. New codexes were made by the remaining Aztecs under instruction and supervision by the Spaniards. The Aztecs were severely weakened by diseases that the Spanish brought such as smallpox, influenza, and malaria. Over time, around 80 percent of the people living in the Valley of Mexico died from these diseases. 


Cortes founded Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Today it is the capital of Mexico and one of the largest cities in the world. 

June 30 1520, Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortez suffered a defeat at the hands of the Aztecs. According to legend, he cried under a tree that night, the "Tree of the Sad Night" on account of the sorrow that Cortés and his surviving followers felt and expressed at the loss of life and treasure incurred in the escape from Tenochtitlan. To the Aztec, it was the "Night of Victory". The tree still stands (somewhat damaged by fire) on what was then and now the main road to the Centro Historico from the west.


- Ducksters

Mexicans of today are every bit as Mexican as other former people of Mexico

Mexicans are descendants from the Nahuatl-speaking Indians, as well as from northern tribesmen. About 80% of the genetic makeup of the Mexican people is Indian or Native American and only about 10% is Spanish-European. So the typical Mexican can be considered, racially, as if he were a pure-blood Indian, since his non-native racial heritage is relatively insignificant. The typical Mexican would correspond to a United States Indian with only one-tenth or one-sixteenth Caucasian ancestry. 
- Dr. Jack D. Forbes, Aztecas Del Norte

We are NOT HISPANIC. Hispanics are the Spaniards, the people of Spain, which used to be called Hispania. We are not Spaniards, and we are not Hispanics!  Calling ourselves "Hispanic" denies us our true indigenous identity. It enslaves us to the Spanish. Calling our people Hispanic is cultural genocide.

We are NOT LATINO. Latinos are from the “Latin” cultures of Southern Europe – those of the Italians, Spaniards, French, and Portuguese. Calling ourselves "Latino" denies us our indigenous identity. It too enslaves us to the Europeans. Calling our people “Latino” is cultural genocide.

We are not Meztizos! The Mestizo label bastardizes our people. We are not bastards of Spain! 

WE ARE NATIVE AMERICANS! native american history


MEXICAN TRIBE

4th Largest Tribe in US? 


Mexicans Who Call Themselves American IndianJanuary 2012 report from the U.S. Census Bureau—“The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010”—says that 175,494 Mexicans (Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano) self-identified as American Indian, making them the fourth largest tribal group in the country, says Think Mexican.The group also pointed out on its tumblr page that the 2010 United States Census form was “deliberately disorienting” and that some Census workers were encouraging Mexicans to identify as white.They refer specifically to question No. 9 on the form, which asks to which race residents of a home belong. The choices included: White, Black, American Indian, Alaska Native, various Asian descents, Hawaiian, Pacific Islanders, and “some other race.”“It was confusing. I came to that question, and I just stopped. I didn’t know what to put,” Jessica Valenzuela, a schoolteacher from Avondale, told The Arizona Republic in 2010. “Obviously, I’m not White. I would consider myself Hispanic or Mexican-American, but definitely not White. The form doesn’t really leave you with another option, though.”Think Mexican says that while 175,494 out of 31 million Mexicans in 2010 may not seem like that much, but despite of the confusing form and centuries of Catholic indoctrination, it’s a “powerful statement.”“It says that indigenous identity amongst many Mexicans is strong, and although this group is numerically relatively small, it represents a much larger group with a similar heritage,” the group says.They also say Mexicans making up the fourth largest tribal group directly challenges Manifest Destiny by saying: “This land is still Native.”
Source: CMN Staff • August 5, 2013A 

Immigration by Europeans

The conquistadors left destruction, genocide, and disease

The main temple of the Aztecs was almost completely destroyed by the Spaniards after their conquest of Tenochtitlan and was completely lost until an Aztec carving was discovered in the heart of Mexico City in 1978. This prompted extensive excavations, which uncovered the ruins of Templo Mayor the ruins of the great pyramid of Templo Mayor. It was the main temple of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Mexica (Aztec ) empire. The capital itself - located right near the main plaza of modern-day Mexico City - was built on a small island on a lake, which had long dried up. The temple had two shrines on the top platform dedicated to two main gods, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war and the sun, and Tlaloc, the god of the rain, water and fertility.  


- sacred-destinations.com/mexico/mexico-city-templo-mayor

The colonizers forced religion on the Natives that were not killed

The Aztecs record books filled with hand painted pictures of their culture and religion, i.e. codexes, were destroyed by the Spaniards so there would be little resistance and in converting them to Catholicism. Cortes was the first to convert women for his men so they can have sex with them since it was considered a sin to have relations to those who weren't converted. The men,  if they didn't convert, they would be killed. If they were discovered to still practice the old religions after they were "converted", they were killed also.

The Sorrowful Night & The Night of Victory

Between 1519 and 1521 the Spanish, under the leadership of conquistador Hernan Cortes, conquered the Aztec Empire. Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes and his men landed on the Mexican coast on April of 1519. Montezuma II sent Cortes gifts of gold and chocolate to welcome the Spanish. Although Montezuma II did not trust Cortes, he also was worried that Cortes was the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl. Aztec mythology said that Quetzalcoatl would come to Earth as a man and Cortes had arrived on Quetzalcoatl's birthday. 


Cortes arrived with around 500 men, 16 horses, and some cannon. He founded a small settlement that would eventually become the city of Veracruz. He also began to get to know the natives. He brought along an American Indian woman named Dona Marina who worked as his interpreter. Cortez created alliances with some of the local tribes including the Totonac and the Tlaxcalans. Cortes began to march inland towards the city of Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec Empire. However, before heading out, Cortes became worried that some of his crew would steal his ships and desert him so he sunk his fleet before marching to Tenochtitlan. He conquered some cities along the way and made alliances with others. The Tlaxcalans became his closest allies. They hated the Aztecs because they had raided their cities for people to sacrifice to their gods. 


Montezuma II tried to keep Cortes from getting all the way to Tenochtitlan, but Cortes continued his march. He destroyed the Aztec religious city of Cholula along the way. 

When Cortes finally arrived in Tenochtitlan he was welcomed with gifts and invited inside. Montezuma was still concerned that Cortes might be a god. Eventually tensions mounted between the two sides and a fight broke out. Cortes and his men took King Montezuma captive. At some point during his captivity, Montezuma II was killed. After Montezuma II was killed the Aztecs elected Cuauhtemoc as their new king. Cortes eventually had him executed. Historians still aren't sure how he was killed or why, but after he died the Spanish soldiers tried to flee from Tenochtitlan. They were attacked by the Aztecs as they fled and nearly two-thirds of the soldiers were killed. Cortes managed to escape with some of his men from Tenochtitlan. He gathered a large force of natives including the Tlaxcalans to fight the Aztecs. He returned to Tenochtitlan and laid siege to the city. After three months of fighting, he finally took control of the city and completed his conquest of the Aztec Empire. 


The Aztecs that weren't killed were forced to convert to the Catholic religion of the Spaniards and to abandon the Aztecs religion. Destroying codexes so that there would be no future problems with conversion. New codexes were made by the remaining Aztecs under instruction and supervision by the Spaniards. The Aztecs were severely weakened by diseases that the Spanish brought such as smallpox, influenza, and malaria. Over time, around 80 percent of the people living in the Valley of Mexico died from these diseases. Cortes founded Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Today it is the capital of Mexico and one of the largest cities in the world. 


June 30 1520, Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortez suffered a defeat at the hands of the Aztecs. According to legend, he cried under a tree that night, the "Tree of the Sad Night" on account of the sorrow that Cortés and his surviving followers felt and expressed at the loss of life and treasure incurred in the escape from Tenochtitlan. To the Aztec, it was the "Night of Victory". The tree still stands (somewhat damaged by fire) on what was then and now the main road to the Centro Historico from the west.


- Ducksters

Temple Mayor Ruins

Templo Mayor was actually lost for centuries. When the Spaniard Hernan Cortez defeated the Aztecs he ordered that the temple be dismantled, and had structures built over the site. The stones from the temple were used to build the cathedral, located beside the site. Little by little, parts of the temple were found in the 19th and early 20th century, and the excavations began. There were actually seven temples on the site, one built on top of another. The temples were built every 52 years, to coincide with the full cycle of the Aztec calendar. The first one was built in 1325, and the last one to be built was the one destroyed by Cortez after the downfall of Aztec emperor Moctezuma II. The pyramid was almost leveled now, with some of the structures being uncovered by excavation, but one can still marvel over the sophistication of its construction. Several statues and carvings are still visible in some parts of the complex, enduring the test of time and the ravages of war.  

- boardinggate101

The USA Stole 1/2 of Mexico's Land

Manifest Destiny

The popular painting by John Gast in (1872) that is titled "American Progress" represents and presents the racist and prejudice bigoted concept and ideology of "Westward Expansion" which is synonymous and associated with the phrase "Manifest Destiny." This was the warped and twisted concept and ideology that the European or "White Race" of "Civilized" superior human beings were destined by "God" to expand across.the ocean from "Sea To Shning Sea" over the Indian or "Red Race" of "Uncivilized" inferior subhuman beings. This belief gave them a subconscious and conscious subliminal and liminal excuse to attempt to exterminate and liquidate them from the face of the earth. The painting features the female "Columbia" bringing light from the east to the darkness of the west while stringing a telegraph wire in her hand as she sweeps across the land. She wears on her head "The Star Of The Empire" and holds a school textbook in her hand that will instill knowledge and civilization to the unknowledgeable and uncivilized inferior subhuman heathen savages. Traveling directly behind her are prospectors, pioneers, settlers, farmers, stage coaches, wagons, trains, cattle and horses chasing the "Indians" and "Bison" like wild beasts of burden from the lightness of the plains into the darkness of the forest. This racist and prejudice bigoted concept and ideology of "American Progress" represents and presents the racist and prejudice bigoted concept and ideology of "Westward Expansion" which is synonymous and associated with the phrase "Manifest Destiny." 


- JAMES DAVID AGUIRRE



What US states once belonged to Mexico? How did they become part of the US?

Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. This war drained Mexico out which contributed to further neglect its Northern territories. While Mexico was at war with Spain, thousands of white colonists, cattleman, adventures, and mercenaries, were coming from other parts of North America that had been already invaded and occupied looking for land and gold they could find and obtain “by any means.”


In this process, whites perpetrated horrible crimes against Mexicans, because they believed in the concept known as “manifest destiny” which in practice meant to “kill everyone and take their lands”. Men and boys were taken by force out of their homes to be murdered, the women and little girls would be raped, murdered, their homes would be set on fire, and their animals would be slaughtered.


“Texans” placed themselves in land plots, and later enlarged their population so that by 1835 there were more white foreigners than native Mexicans in the area, and called the stolen lands “Republic of Texas.”

Up until 1843 California, New Mexico and other portions of the Southwest were internationally recognized provinces of Mexico, until the U.S. decided it wanted those provinces and declared war on Mexico.


In 1844, then president James Polk confides to his Secretary of the Navy that a principal objective of his presidency is the acquisition of California, which Mexico had been refusing to sell to the U.S. at any price.


In 1845 The Washington Union writes: "A corps of properly organized volunteers could invade, overrun, and occupy Mexico. They would enable us not only to take California, but to keep it." James Polk orders troops to march south of the traditional Texas/Mexico border into Mexican inhabited territory.

Violence then erupts between Mexican and American troops positioned south of the border. Of course Polk claims Mexicans had fired the first shot. President Polk urges congress to declare open war on Mexico.


In 1846 Colonel Hitchcock, commander of the 3rd Infantry regiment, writes in his diary: "...the United States are the aggressors....We have not one particle of right to be here....It looks as if the government sent a small force on purpose to bring on a war, so as to have a pretext for taking California and as much of this country as it chooses....My heart is not in this business."


1848, Mexico surrenders on U.S. terms. The U.S. takes over ownership of New Mexico, California, expands Texas, and more, for a token payment of $15 million. Native Mexicans are given the choice to become US citizens or leave the area one year after the Treaty was signed.

General Ulysses S. Grant calls the Mexican War "the most unjust war ever undertaken by a stronger nation against a weaker one."



-The Truth Is Freedom's Blog

HYPOCRISY

The Native American community have noted the hypocrisy, and ignorance of the average White-American to the history and formation of the US, and to what extent their ancestor's illegal immigration has contributed to the decline of Native American culture and society. To refute the Eurocentric narratives of those who justify the stealing of land, colonial-settler terrorism, and genocide perpetrated by the settlers of the 13 colonies, and founders of the United States, is not a difficult task. There are no intelligent philosophies which justify the barbaric culture of conquest which has plagued Europeans since the 11th century, and so it is not very difficult to identify the flawed ideology of settler-colonialism. 


The "Doctrine of Discovery", the U.S' legal cover for theft, which states Europeans have the right to rule, and relinquish occupancy of Indigenous people who's land Europeans have "discovered", is comically easy to refute, merely pose the question "How can Europeans discover a land which is already occupied?" and one of the prevailing beliefs which established the US, is debunked. 


The myth of the Americas as "Uninhabited Wilderness" where there were no laws, government, or borders which would result in white settlers being illegal immigrants, is also false. By the time Europeans had arrived to America, Native Americans inhabited and developed every part of America, and had at that point developed systems of government, complex trade networks, and established territories with clearly defined boundaries. 


The US has broken over 500 of the Treaties made with Native Americans, treaties primarily concerned with territory, thus the European has illegally invaded native land, never bothering to learn the language, culture, or values of Native people of this land, while hypocritically condemning, Mexicans, many of whom are Indigenous, for not speaking English, or learning to be "American". Europeans have never offered the courtesy of assimilating to any culture they have interacted with, if they have an issue with Indigenous presence on this land Europe is only a boat ride away.


- me.me/decolonize-settler-colonial-narratives-invasion-broken-treaties-forced...

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is Null and Void


In 1848 several hundred thousand Mexican people (Spanish-speaking Mexicans and tribal groups) were brought under the jurisdiction of the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. 

This treaty provided many protections for Mexican people, including United States citizenship and security in the “free enjoyment of their liberty, property and religion”. The treaty envisioned that the Mexican-dominated Southwest and natives would be able to protect their interests by means of their own state constitutions and, of course, the United States Constitution. 



The former Mexican people were, however, betrayed by events beyond their control. The California gold rush flooded that area with non-Mexicans, and an Anglo-dominated state was quickly created. The Colorado-Utah-Nevada region also passed to Anglo control and states were rapidly created. In 1912 Anglo control was established in Arizona and New Mexico. The implicit promise of the treaty - that former Mexican people would possess states and self-government was, therefore, nullified. 



The United States also violated the treaty in more flagrant ways. For example, former Mexicans were deprived of their “property” in various ways. Spanish speaking property owners were subjected to a process of providing title, which made it virtually certain that their estates would be acquired by Anglo-Americans. They were also subjected to discriminatory land taxation in California by that state’s Anglo-dominated legislature. Former Mexicans of tribal affiliation “Indians” were even more flagrantly deprived of their property. The US pretended that Indians were not covered either by the provisions of the treaty by the protective clauses of the Constitution - they were fair game for everyone, “trespassers on the public domain.” Ancient villages, protected by Mexican law, were now broken up by US action. 



Mexicans were also frequently deprived of their liberty, as when military or territorial governments favored Anglo-Americans, or when California disfranchised virtually all people of Indian descent. Mining regions were often closed to former Mexicans, and mineral discoveries were forcibly seized by Anglo-Americans, Tribal groups were indiscriminately slaughtered in California and literally pushed toward extinction - perhaps seventy-five thousand were eliminated during the 1850s with violence, and interethnic relations were tinged with bitterness. Ironically this bitterness was not a direct legacy the United States-Mexican War, but of the decades of discrimination which followed. 

Spanish was a legal language throughout the Southwest and was used in legislative bodies, voting, judicial proceedings, and education. 


In California, Mexicans remained in a majority in the south and occupied many political and appointive offices. Many newspapers were bilingual, and all California state publications were required by the state constitution of 1849 to be available in both English and Spanish. All of this changed, however, during the 1870s and 1880s. The Anglo majority wrote a new constitution which de-legalized Spanish. Anglos took over the economics and politics of southern California. Schools were transformed into replicas of the New England school house.


  • Jack D. Forbes

“Aztecs Del Norte"

The Chicanos of Azltan



7 Causes of the Mexican American War


Causes of  the Mexican American War


1804 - Americans formally displayed their interest in Mexico during the presidency of Jefferson. Napoleon had not defined the exact boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase, so Jefferson initially claimed Texas had been part of the purchase. But Spain refused to acknowledge this claim.

1819 - In the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, the US gave up official claims over Texas in return for Spain's decision to give up Florida.

1827 - President John Quincy Adams tried to purchase Texas for a million dollars, but Mexico refused the offer.

1830 - President Andrew Jackson tried to purchase Texas for 5 million dollars but again, Mexico refused the offer.


Second Cause - Americans began immigrating to the Mexican territory of Texas and quickly became the dominant population.


In late 1821, Moses Austin - an American - received a grant from the new Mexican government to establish a colony of 300 American families in Texas.

Each family could purchase up to 170 acres for agriculture and another 128 acres for stock raising - a total of 298 acres. The government asked 12-1/2 cents per acre, tax free.

The grant stipulated that all settlers must be Catholics or willing to convert to Catholicism; that all public transactions must take place in Spanish; and that all immigrants had to relinquish their US citizenship and take an oath of loyalty to Mexico.

By 1822, 300 families had arrived under the leadership of Moses' son - Stephen Austin. (Moses died before being able to immigrate.)


When the Americans began arriving, they were the minority among 3,000 Mexican ranchers who lived in Texas - one of the least populated areas of the country.

Many other Americans felt that if Austin could get such a generous grant, they could too. The United States was still struggling with the aftermath of the Panic of 1819 and soaring land prices within the United States made the Mexican land policy seem very generous. Thus, a substantial migration began.


In 1823, partly because American migration increased so rapidly, the Mexican government forbid the sale or purchase of slaves, required that the children of slaves be freed when they reached fourteen, and required that any slave introduced into Mexico by purchase or trade would also be freed.


By 1824, the colony's American population exceeded 2,000 with about 450 slaves. They had largely excluded themselves from the 3,000 Mexicans.


By 1825, the Mexican government began to worry about the increasing number of American immigrants and asked for an investigation of how colonization was proceeding in Texas.American land grants in Texas 1838

In 1829, the investigation found:

Most Anglo Americans refused to become Mexican citizens, had largely isolated themselves from Mexicans, and perhaps most troubling - the immigrants were ignoring the slave reforms passed by the state.


In response, the Mexican government officially outlawed all slavery in Mexico.

To circumvent the law, many Anglo colonists converted their slaves into indentured servants for life. Others simply called their slaves indentured servants without legally changing their status. Slaveholders wishing to enter Mexico would force their slaves to sign contracts claiming that the slaves owed money and would work to pay the debt. The low wages the slave would receive made repayment impossible, and the debt would be inherited

Texas outlawed this tactic in 1832 by prohibiting worker contracts from lasting more than ten years.


By 1836, Americans had become the dominant population in Texas; there were 38,000 American settlers and about 5,000 slaves, versus 7,000 Mexicans living in Texas. Additionally, the settlers held title to several huge land grants - grants that encompassed over half of the entire state of Texas.


Third Cause - American refusal to submit to Mexican laws

Americans, as discussed above, disobeyed all Mexican laws in regard to slavery.

Additionally, while Americans had promised to convert to Catholicism and sign an oath of allegiance to Mexico, most had refused to do either.


In 1830, Mexico prohibited further American immigration into Mexican territory. Americans, however, ignored the immigration law and continued to cross the border.


Fourth Cause - Mexico adopted a new, centralized government, thus forcing the Mexican states to relinquish some of their power.


In 1832, Santa Anna led a revolt against Mexican president Bustamante which resulted in a short civil war in which Santa Anna was victorious.


On June 12, 1834, President Santa Anna dissolved Congress and he immediately formed a new centralized government - a dictatorship backed by the military. Several states openly rebelled against the changes - including Texas which soon formed its own government, the Republic of Texas.


Fifth Cause - Anglo American settlers' began to seek more autonomy for Texas.

The Mexican government attempted to address some of the Texans' concerns, especially allowing more American immigrants to settle in Texas, giving Texas more representation in the state legislature, and authorizing English as a second language.


But in 1835, Santa Anna revoked the Constitution and began centralizing and consolidating his power. As protests spread across Texas, Mexican officials blamed the Anglo settlers for the discord, noting that they continued to live in isolation from Mexicans and had not become citizens.

These events led to the sixth and most important cause of the Mexican American War - the American declaration of the Republic of Texas.


Sixth Cause - Americans established the Republic of Texas with the western boundary at the Nueces River.

American colonists proclaimed a provisional government - the Republic of Texas and declared independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836.

The American colonists maintained that Mexico had invited them to move to the country and they were determined to enjoy the republican institutions to which they were accustomed in their native land, the United States of America.


A battled ensued - the battle of the Alamo - and ended with the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836. At San Jacinto, Sam Houston had organized a counterattack and surprised Santa Anna’s forces at San Jacinto. A systematic slaughter ensued. After the battle, 2 Americans and 630 Mexicans were dead. Santa Anna was captured and promised to convince the Mexican government to recognize the Republic of Texas.

Santa Anna did not keep his promise and the Mexican Congress refused to accept Texas independence.


In October 1836, Sam Houston became president of the new Republic of Texas with a western boundary at the Nueces River.


Seventh Cause - Americans elected a new president in 1844 - James K. Polk - who ran on a platform to annex Texas with the western boundary at the Rio Grande River.


In 1838, Sam Houston invited the U.S. to annex Texas, but Congress declined. Why? Mexico refused to recognize Texas independence and the Whigs (advocates of federalism) felt annexation would bring war with Mexico. Further, the northern Whigs did not want another slave state entering the Union.


However, in 1845, just days before President Tyler (Whig) left office for his successor, James K. Polk (Democrat), convinced Congress to annex Texas with the southern border set along the Rio Grande. Texas was admitted to the union as a slave state. Republic of Texas disputed territories map But admission had not been easy. The United States Congress passed - after much debate and only a simple majority - a Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States.


Although the formal transfer of government did not occur until February 19, 1846, Texas statehood dates from the 29th of December, 1845.

Mexico immediately cut off relations with U.S. and insisted that Texas’s southern boundary was the Nueces River, not the Rio Grande which was 130 miles to the south. President Polk responded by ordering American troops under General Zachary Taylor to the disputed territory - the border area between the Nueces and the Rio Grande Rivers.


The U.S. government declared it had no choice but to go to war with Mexico. Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande to attack the U.S. army and on May 11, 1846, the U.S. was at war with Mexico.


The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 1, 1848, ceded Texas with the Rio Grande boundary, and all territory between Texas and the Pacific - territory that later became the states of New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, and most of Arizona, Wyoming, and Colorado. In return, the U.S. paid Mexico $15 million. Americans gained over 1 million square miles - an area amounting to one-half of all Mexico.


Credit: Dr. Gayle Olson-Raymer, Professor Emeritus, State University's Department of History

Tonantzin of Mexicao vs. Lady Guadalupe of Spain

Juan Diego and Tonantzin: how a 1st century Judean woman magically ended up in 1500s Mexico.

As usual with most "holy events" that take place, this story and Juan Diego were not mentioned or written about until a few years after his death.

Tonantzin, or "Mother Earth/World/Life" was an indigenous earth goddess worshipped and well known within the Aztec religions. It was said that she looked after unborn and newborn children, keeping vigil over those that could not care for themselves. When the spanish showed up in the 1490s, they destroyed all images of her and prohibited art depicting her.

Hernán Cortés, the Conquistador who overthrew the Aztec empire in 1521, was a native of Extremadura, home to Our Lady of Guadalupe of Spain. By the 16th century the Extremadura Guadalupe, a statue of the Virgin said to be carved by Saint Luke the Evangelist, was already a national icon among the europeans. It was found at the beginning of the 14th century when the Virgin was found in south Iberia. The recovered Virgin then inspired Christians to expel the non Christian Moors from Spain, and her small shrine evolved into the great Guadalupe monastery which stands in Mexico today.

Later, in the mid 1530s the Spanish were dealing with insurrection and resistance from the conquered natives. They were losing followers fast when the first few converts rebelled after they had prayed to the Christian god and did not find relief for their famine or murders. With very little military presence the soldiers were ordered to protect officials from the church.

Within the next decades, a native who had been baptized with the spanish name "Juan Diego" reproduced a painting of Tonantzin, but this time she was depicted wearing a modernized tilmatli that resembled a european nun and held a cross in order to prevent his persecution at the hands of the church. The religious missionaries that discovered this art realized it's potential as a tool to further enslave and pacify the oppressed masses.

The painting of Tonantzin was recreated, replacing the tilmatli with an old Christian hijab and surrounding her with angels. For his contribution to the forced conversion of his people, the Spanish allowed Juan Diego to live comfortably among priests. 60 years after Juan Diego's death, the Spanish fabricated a story of Guadalupe appearing before him and saving him from life as a poor peasant. He was idolized and added to the list of Catholic Saints.


- Credit: Milintica of Aztec Natives

Original Source: Unknown

Juan Diego May Have Never Existed

In 1883, Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta a historian of Zumárraga (first Catholic bishop of Mexico) in a confidential report on the Lady of Guadalupe for Bishop Labastida, had been hesitant to support Juan Diego's "vision." He concluded that Juan Diego NEVER EXISTED.

Also, In 1996, the 83-year old Abbott of the Basilica of the Virgin Guadalupe, Guillermo Schulenburg, was forced to resign following an interview published in the Catholic magazine Nexus, in which he was quoted as saying Juan Diego (the indigenous guy who supposedly saw the apparition) was a "symbol, NOT a real reality", and that his recognition by Pope John Paul II would be the recognition of a cult.  It would not be recognition of the physical real existence of a person."

The Virgin Guadalupe from Cáceres, Extramadura, Spain, was placed in the Chapel of Choir in the monastery, in 1499. That image was brought to Mexico on Cortes ship as his banner in 1521, and served as a model/inspiration by Marcos Cipac de Acquino, who drew her to help supplant her in Tonatzin's place, and convert the indigenous from their gods, especially their Mother Tonantzin.  There were a few Tonatzin. Her temple at Tepayac was destroyed. Our ancestors worshipped her there for years, and years, and years. Even after they erected the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe on top of it, the natives flocked from all over to the site, to be near what they knew was the original temple of our Mother Tonantzin.

Per Franciscan historian Sahagún (in charge of Basilica) "At this place Tepayac, the "Indians" had a temple dedicated to the Mother of the gods, whom they called Tonantzin, Our Mother.....Now that a church is built there, they also call her (Virgin Guadalupe) Tonantzin.....It appears to be a satanic invention to cloak idolatry under the confusion of this name, Tonantzin."  

HIS criticism stems from his concern about syncretism ---  application of Tonantzin to the Virgin Mary. Use of Virgin Mary to keep worshipping the Aztec Mother...

Viva Madre Tonantzin Coatlaxopueh and Tonantzin Coatlicue.  

Tonantzin is a TITLE of highest reverence. The Coatlaxopueh etc is a name.

By Rosa Montes G.

- Aztec Natives

The Image as made as a Pictograph

The Image of Our Lady is actually an Aztec Pictograph which was read and understood quickly by the Aztec Indians to convert them and prevent an impending revolt.

  1. THE LADY STOOD IN FRONT OF THE SUN - She was greater than their dreaded sun-god "Huitzilopochtli".

  2. HER FOOT RESTED ON THE CRESCENT MOON - She had clearly vanquished their foremost deity, the feather serpent "Quetzalcoatl".

  3. THE STARS STREWN ACROSS THE MANTLE - She was greater than the stars of heaven which they worshipped. She was a virgin and the Queen of the heavens for Virgo rests over her womb and the northern crown upon her head. She appeared on December 12, 1531, for the stars that she wore are the constellation of stars that appeared in the sky that day!

  4. THE BLUEâGREEN HUE OF HER MANTLE - She was a Queen for she wears the color of royalty.

  5. THE BLACK CROSS ON THE BROOCH AT HER NECK - Her God was that of the Spanish Missionaries, Jesus Christ her son.

  6. THE BLACK BELT - She was with child for she wore the Aztec Maternity Belt.

  7. THE FOUR-PETAL FLOWER OVER THE WOMB - She was the "Mother of God." The flower was a special symbol of life, movement and deity - the center of the universe.

  8. HER HANDS ARE JOINED IN PRAYER - She was not God but clearly there was one greater than Her and she pointed her finger to the cross on her brooch.

  9. THE DESIGN ON HER ROSE-COLORED GARMENT - She is the "Queen of the Earth," for she is wearing a map of Mexico telling the Indians exactly where the apparition took place.

- Source: Catholic Education Resource Center, Online: Catholic Education . Org


Aug 12, 1521

The Message left to our people

- Cuauhtemoc

Native Americans are from the USA and MEXICO!

The Mexican Flag is a Criollo Spanish / Colonizer's Flag.

There did not used to be a "Wall" or boarder on our land. This is a European structure made by the colonizers. We didn't cross the border, the border crossed us. 


Our blood is older than the concept of all nations, but not than the concept of being in a nation. It is human nature to group up and create a nation, tribes are nation as well, there’s nothing wrong with accepting citizenship of one and labeling yourself as to the country of your citizenship when referring to nationality.


If we’re decolonizing 100% that means no cars, no dairy, no guns, no steel, no nothing that we didn’t have preconquest. This is not realistic. We can’t live 100% in the past, the world keeps advancing and if we don’t, we get left behind and become a target for others. It would be great for the environment to be able to live like our ancestors, but only if the whole world got with the agenda; while we go back they’ll go forward and at one point we will be recolonized by someone else who wants our land or its resources.


The best thing to do is to decolonize our minds, relearn the forgotten identity, relearn the languages that were beaten out of us, teach self love to our elders and young ones who through the effects of colonization have been subconsciously taught to hate the indigenous in themselves. Relearn the identity and teach it to newer generations but not disowning your descending nation or it's flag. 


The USA and its people seem to think natives are only form the USA and Canada, and rejecting Mexico. By only claiming Native, you don’t correct that thought - you only help it. You can tell them "I’m a Native American from Mexico, and I’m a Mexican or a US citizen (if you are); you don’t need to disown the nation where your roots sprout from as you decolonize. 


We need unity and not division, and definitely not division over the flag of the nation where our roots come from.