White people are the illegal immigrants on Turtle Island (the Native American name for our continent) and brown people from below the Rio Grande River are Native Americans. Yet white people refer to themselves as legal and native to this land and the Natives as illegal aliens and illegal immigrants.
It is the greatest con in the world when Natives have become the illegal immigrants and the illegal immigrants have become the natives.
Mexicans, Identify Native American!
They don't want you to know the truth because then you will have a say on your land, rights on your land, a claim to your land, and will no longer be seen as an illegal immigrant! We are not immigrants! We have always been here! We are migrants free to roam the length and breadth of our ancestral land that has been scarred with European invader boarders and colonies called Canada, USA and Mexico.
The Americas are comprised of North American and South American. They have been invaded and occupied by and stolen by Europeans thru pestilence, pillaging, genocide, and rape.
"America" is NOT a country. The U.S. is a country and was built on top of stolen Native American land. It is currently under occupation by colonizers from Europe, British/English.
Meso-America is also part of the North American continent and is NOT a country. "Mexico" is a country and was built on top of stolen Native American land.
It is currently squatted on by foreigners from Europe, Spain.
South America is also an American continent of the western hemisphere and is also occupied by the ancestors of the invaders from across the sea.
Native Americans lived in the Canadian area prior to European/French invasions and occupation.
Alaska was also home to Indigenous people of the Americas until European explorers/Russians colonized.
"Hispanic refers to people, cultures and languages from Spain. Spaniards are Hispanic, along with Galicians, Basque people and Catalans. Latin refers to people from Latin Europe where romance languages originate and where Catholicism is the predominate religion. The Iberian Peninsula (Portugal, Spain), France, Italy are Latin. Our Native ancestors were forced to call themselves Hispanic and Latin at the gunpoint of the Spanish conquistadors and Latin colonizers. They passed down these labels to us as they were forced to detribalize and assimilate into Hispanic and Latin cultures in order to survive the colonial control. Stop calling yourself that, you are Native, you are from here, you are from the Americas. Reclaim your roots!!"
The so-called Hispanics, Latinos,immigrants and illegal aliens, being focused upon today, are in fact Americans Native to America. They are Native Americans. They are all our cousins. We are all indigenous people, all Indian! We are all Americans and the original owners of this land. Why then are they called Hispanics and Latinos? Since the 1492 European invasion, the intentional mislabeling of Native Americans has long been a tactic to disenfranchise brown Native Americans,and steal and maintain control of indigenous Native American land and wealth. The mislabeling of Native Americans coupled with racist borders and racist laws for 516 years have been tools used to control us, our land and our wealth. For example the racist one-drop rule in Virginia and the South enabled the theft of millions of acres of land. With the stroke of a pen people who were Native American were converted into Negro or colored. And since black people were not indigenous to America, their Native American land was free for the taking by the Europeans. Later in the 1900’s, registrar for the state of Virginia Walter Pleckler, systemically changed birth certificates of Native American people from Indian to Negro. The terms Hispanic, Colored, Latino, Negro,Mulatto, Mestizo and Black are names given to Native Americans so that they could have no land claims. This paper and identity genocide was part of a much larger genocidal process that started in 1492 as I explain later.
In 1492 Europeans invaded the Americas. It was the beginning of the greatestholocaust and genocide in all of human history, with over 90% of our populationbeing tortured and murdered, amounting to tens of millions of Native Americans massacred. Part of the genocide was cultural where our surviving ancestors werebrainwashed, tortured and forced into forgetting our culture, languages,history and spirituality. We were forcedto accept new identities that disconnected us from our land—black, white,colored, Hispanic, Negro, Latino, mulatto, Mestizos. We were give names from Europe and forced toforget our own names. The slaughter, genocide, holocaust, and brainwashinginflicted upon our peacefulancestors were intentionally done for onereason—to steal the wealth and land of the peaceful peoples of the Americas. The Americas makeup 25% of the world’s wealth.
The intention of Europeans since 1492was the theft of an entire continent from the bottom tip of South America tothe top of Alaska, as can be traced back to the Papal Bulls Inter Cetera of May 4, 1493 where the pope and theChristian church gave the American continent to European. The same sentiment isshown in the Manifest Destiny painting below by John Gast in 1872. Clearly this painting shows the intent ofwhat was being done to Native Americans—they were being pushed off the earthand the Native stragglers missed by the Manifest Destiny bulldozer would have to assimilate into white culture.
The intent to exterminate Native people and culture was deeply planted into the Europeanmindset. Even seemingly innocentchildren’s stories, such as The Wizard ofOz, were written with the intent of socializing white children that allIndians must be exterminated. Don’t takemy word for this. Do a google search on theterm, “Wizard of Oz, hating Indians, Youwill find many articles on the subject. Frank Baum, the author of Oz, alsowrote newspaper editorials calling for the complete extermination of allIndians.
Borders, immoral laws, lies,brainwashing, murder, rape, assimilation and misinformation have always been apart of the theft process. For 500years borders have been placed on our land that we never agreed to. We were and are prevented from crossing theseborders and were and are considered “illegal aliens” when we cross theseborders in our own homeland.
This happened right here inVirginia. In 1492 my Siouan Native Americanancestors’ territory covered the majority of what is today the state of Virginia and our population was approximately twomillion people. By 1701 we wererelegated to a small 23,000 acre reservation called Fort Christanna in what isnow called Brunswick County VA. In 200years two million of our people had been murdered and we had less than 600people remaining. Our “border” was theJames River and our hunting territory was the land south of the James. According to the treaty of 1714, I would havebeen an illegal alien in the area where Richmond Virginianow resides without papers. Thefollowing is from the Treaty of 1714.
“There shall be set out and assigned for theSettlement of the said nation of Indians who shall hereafter be deemed asincorporated into one Nation a Tract of Land upon the south side of James Riverabove the inhabitants equal to six miles square whereon they may build a Fortand make improvements for the convenience and Subsistence of their families, And moreover all the unpatented lands between JamesRiver and Roanoke shall be assigned for the hunting grounds of the said Nation. . . none of the said Indians shall depart off thegrounds allotted for their habitation nor repair to the Towns of the otherTributary Indians expert [sic] in company with some of the English residing atthe said Fort neither shall any of the said Indians depart off their huntinggrounds or come among the Inhabitants without the License of the Governoror the Captain of the Fort or in company of some Englishman belonging to thesaid Fort on pain of being punished at the Governor’s discretion…”
Our border was the James River and we were illegal aliens in our own homeland. Slowly the border has moved. With the Trail of Tears, and thousands of additional murdered Native Americans,United States President Andrew Jackson in 1830 shifted the border to theMississippi river. He proudly proclaimed there were no more Indians east of the Mississippi and we were illegal aliensif we crossed the Mississippi River. Next came more reservations and more borders. We were illegal aliens when we crossed theborders of these reservations. Eventually the border was moved as far as the Rio Grand River where itis today. With each of these borders wehave been illegal aliens whenever we crossed them without white papers andthere have always been laws stripping our indigenous rights away when we crossthese racist borders. For 500 yearsthere have been lies, propaganda, racist laws and racist borders used to systematically disenfranchise brown, indigenous, NativeAmericans in America. Our only crime is being born brown and indigenous to the Americas and tobe the owners of 25% of the world’s wealth. And to attain this wealth the European invaders exterminated an estimated 70 million of our people. And yes it was extermination as documented in Bartolome De Las Casas writings.
To give perspective regarding what is happening today with the immigration debate, we can look to see how things would look if the Louisiana Purchase had never happened. Please see the map. The USA border would stop at the Mississippi River. Spanish speaking and identified Mexico would extend up and include Texas, California, Arizona and the other western states.
There would be a French identified and French speaking country west of the Mississippi River, just as we now have a Spanish identified and Spanish speaking county, Mexico, south of the Rio Grande. In addition, just as today the Spanish identified country, Mexico is named for the Mexica Indians, the French identified country, east of the Mississippi could be named something like Lakotia after the Lakota (Sioux) Indians. The people from the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi River, such as the Lakota and Choctaw, would not be seen as Native Americans or Indian, because they don’t live in the United States. They would perhaps be Lakotians from Lakotia just as we have Mexicans from Mexico. Just as Spanish speaking Mexicans are not seen as Native American but as Hispanic, French speaking Lakotians would have special misleading ethnic titles, such as Frankish that keep people from remembering that they are Natives.
Just as with the fake Hispanic label, the sole purpose of the fake Frankish label would be to mislead people regarding their Indian identity. This way they can be effectively tagged with the false illegal immigrant status and our Native population artificially kept low? And even if the Latokians had long black hair, or Mohawk haircuts, high cheek bones and dark skin, white people would still see these Lakota Indians as some “alien” race such Frankish. We know this because this is what they do today with the Mexica Indians from below the Rio Grande River with the false Hispanic label. They are just “Hispanic”or “Frankish” and thus “immigrants” regardless of the overwhelming evidence that they are Native
Just as Mexica Indians from Mexico are considered Spanish because they speak Spanish, Lakota Indians from Lokotia would not be considered Native but they would be considered French because they speak French. Just as today hardly anyone knows that Mexico and Mexican are names derived from the Mexica Indians of the area, hardly anyone then would know that the term Lakotia was derived from the Lakota Indians. Because the last thing one would think of when thinking of Lakotia would be Indians, just as the last thing one thinks of when thinking of Mexico is Indian. And this is in the face of overwhelming evidence staring us directly in the face..
The vast majority of Lakotians would have been shamed into forgetting that they are Indian and would be proud to be Frankish or Lakotians and thus immigrants in their own home land. They would proudly wave the Lakotian flag, and sing Lakotian music (from Europe) with no connection to their Indian ancestry. We know this because this is exactly what we see with the Spanish speaking Natives from Mexico.
There would be a wall being built on the Mississippi River. There would be ferocious attacks against these “illegal Lakotians immigrant aliens” by those like Glen Beck, Lou Dobbs and Bill O’Reily regarding “those illegal aliens” coming into “our” land. The Lakotians would never be referred to as Indians because the attackers would then have no reasonable or defensible argument. The attackers would not be able to claim the moral high ground for trying to keep Indians out of their own homeland. It would be a silly argument.
If a Mississippi Choctaw Indian were to cross from the Mississippi River headed east from Lakotia, back into his homelands in Mississippi he would be considered an “alien” or “immigrant”, by the people from Europe who stole his land and forced him out and are now living in his home. A Mississippi Choctaw Indian would be an illegal immigrant in Mississippi and would be arrested and jailed if caught there.
We, the indigenous people of the North American continent never agreed to any borders on our land nor did we agree to laws preventing us from crossing any borders. We were here before the borders and thus we did not cross any borders, the borders crossed us, on our land—dividing families, tribes and nations. Therefore these borders and immoral laws are not binding on any indigenous person in America. Since we did not agree to any borders, no brown indigenous Native American on the North American continent is illegal.
What we have with theMexican border is an apartheid system with indigenous people separated,quarantined and controlled on a portion of our own homeland. Just as with South African apartheid we arebrought in on temporary work passes and then sent back to our reservation whenthe work is done. Mexico is the world’slargest Native Americanreservationintended to control and disempower brown indigenous NativeAmericans, in our own homeland, on the Americacontinent. And now a Berlin style wallis being built to keep the Indians on the reservation.
For 500 years there havebeen those who have been paid to spread lies, misinformation and propaganda toconfuse people. What a con game whenthe aliens and immigrants have become the natives and the natives have becomethe illegal aliens and immigrants. .
Brown Continent, February 28,2008
"It seems to me one of the ways of getting rid of the indian question is just this of intermarriage, and the gradual fading our of the indian blood, the whole quality and charactor of the aborigine disappears, they lose all of the traditions of the race, there is no longer any occasion to maintain the tribal relations, and there is then every reason why they shall go and take their place as white people do everywhere."
- Anthony Higgins, a U.S. Senator from Delaware, in 1895 congressional testimony.
Fifty pounds per head for every Indian man, and Twenty five pounds for any Indian Woman or Child, Male or Female, under the age of Fourteen Years, taken or brought in prisoner or proof of death per indian scalp of hair produced and delivered"
The early white Christians did not convert Native Americans into Christians to save their souls so that Native Americans may join them in Heaven - in the afterlife. This is irrefutably, because they perceived that Native Americans had no souls and that Heaven was for whites only.
The true self-serving reason was to indoctrinate the image of a white god into the Native’s minds. This makes many Brown people feel inferior and act subservient towards white people. This happens often without most Brown indigenous people even realizing it.
To starve the Native Americans so they would come more dependent on the American government.
Stated Purpose of the BIA Boarding Schools:
"Assimilate American Indian children into the American culture by placing them in institutions where they are forced to reject their own culture."
Photo: "Thomas Moore" before and after his entrance into the Regina Indian Residential School in Saskatchewan in 1874
"If you no longer speak your language and no longer practice your culture, then you have no right to demand aboriginal rights from us, because you are assimilated with the ruling power."
Did you know that the Native American Indian People in the United States of America have to prove what fraction or degree of "Indian Blood Quantum" or "Blood Quantum" that they have in order to be acknowledged and recognized by the United States Federal Government. They are deliberately and intentionally racially discriminated against because they are the only ethnic group or race of human beings in the United States of America that have to document and record their complete "Indian" ancestry and "Indian" lineage to the Bureau Of Indian Affairs (B.I.A.) which is an agency of the United States Federal Government. They will actually recieve a "Pedigree Slip" called a Certificate Degree of Indian Blood (C.D.I.B.) with their fraction or degree of "Indian Blood Quantum" or "Blood Quantum" on a piece of paper: 3/4-1/2-1/4-1/8-1/16-1/32. This will ensure that if they do not have children with another "Indian" their ethnic group or race of human beings will continue to decrease and become more extinct while every other ethnic group or race of human beings will continue to increase and become more distinct. The Native American Indian People in the United States of America must eliminate and eradicate this form of paper genocide and ethnocide because we do not need to prove to anyone on a piece of paper, like an animal or a breed, that we carry the "Indigenous" blood of our ancestors.
- JAMES DAVID AGUIRRE
Mexicans are descendants from the Nahuatl-speaking Indians, as well as from northern tribesmen. About 80% of the genetic makeup of the Mexican people is Indian or Native American and only about 10% is Spanish-European. So the typical Mexican can be considered, racially, as if he were a pure-blood Indian, since his non-native racial heritage is relatively insignificant. The typical Mexican would correspond to a United States Indian with only one-tenth or one-sixteenth Caucasian ancestry.
- Dr. Jack D. Forbes, Aztecas Del Norte
We are NOT HISPANIC. Hispanics are the Spaniards, the people of Spain, which used to be called Hispania. We are not Spaniards, and we are not Hispanics! Calling ourselves "Hispanic" denies us our true indigenous identity. It enslaves us to the Spanish. Calling our people Hispanic is cultural genocide.
We are NOT LATINO. Latinos are from the “Latin” cultures of Southern Europe – those of the Italians, Spaniards, French, and Portuguese. Calling ourselves "Latino" denies us our indigenous identity. It too enslaves us to the Europeans. Calling our people “Latino” is cultural genocide.
We are not Meztizos! The Mestizo label bastardizes our people. We are not bastards of Spain!
WE ARE NATIVE AMERICANS! native american history
Mexicans Who Call Themselves American IndianJanuary 2012 report from the U.S. Census Bureau—“The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010”—says that 175,494 Mexicans (Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano) self-identified as American Indian, making them the fourth largest tribal group in the country, says Think Mexican.The group also pointed out on its tumblr page that the 2010 United States Census form was “deliberately disorienting” and that some Census workers were encouraging Mexicans to identify as white.They refer specifically to question No. 9 on the form, which asks to which race residents of a home belong. The choices included: White, Black, American Indian, Alaska Native, various Asian descents, Hawaiian, Pacific Islanders, and “some other race.”“It was confusing. I came to that question, and I just stopped. I didn’t know what to put,” Jessica Valenzuela, a schoolteacher from Avondale, told The Arizona Republic in 2010. “Obviously, I’m not White. I would consider myself Hispanic or Mexican-American, but definitely not White. The form doesn’t really leave you with another option, though.”Think Mexican says that while 175,494 out of 31 million Mexicans in 2010 may not seem like that much, but despite of the confusing form and centuries of Catholic indoctrination, it’s a “powerful statement.”“It says that indigenous identity amongst many Mexicans is strong, and although this group is numerically relatively small, it represents a much larger group with a similar heritage,” the group says.They also say Mexicans making up the fourth largest tribal group directly challenges Manifest Destiny by saying: “This land is still Native.”
Source: CMN Staff • August 5, 2013A
The main temple of the Aztecs was almost completely destroyed by the Spaniards after their conquest of Tenochtitlan and was completely lost until an Aztec carving was discovered in the heart of Mexico City in 1978. This prompted extensive excavations, which uncovered the ruins of Templo Mayor the ruins of the great pyramid of Templo Mayor. It was the main temple of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Mexica (Aztec ) empire. The capital itself - located right near the main plaza of modern-day Mexico City - was built on a small island on a lake, which had long dried up. The temple had two shrines on the top platform dedicated to two main gods, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war and the sun, and Tlaloc, the god of the rain, water and fertility.
The Aztecs record books filled with hand painted pictures of their culture and religion, i.e. codexes, were destroyed by the Spaniards so there would be little resistance and in converting them to Catholicism. Cortes was the first to convert women for his men so they can have sex with them since it was considered a sin to have relations to those who weren't converted. The men, if they didn't convert, they would be killed. If they were discovered to still practice the old religions after they were "converted", they were killed also.
Between 1519 and 1521 the Spanish, under the leadership of conquistador Hernan Cortes, conquered the Aztec Empire. Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes and his men landed on the Mexican coast on April of 1519. Montezuma II sent Cortes gifts of gold and chocolate to welcome the Spanish. Although Montezuma II did not trust Cortes, he also was worried that Cortes was the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl. Aztec mythology said that Quetzalcoatl would come to Earth as a man and Cortes had arrived on Quetzalcoatl's birthday.
Cortes arrived with around 500 men, 16 horses, and some cannon. He founded a small settlement that would eventually become the city of Veracruz. He also began to get to know the natives. He brought along an American Indian woman named Dona Marina who worked as his interpreter. Cortez created alliances with some of the local tribes including the Totonac and the Tlaxcalans. Cortes began to march inland towards the city of Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec Empire. However, before heading out, Cortes became worried that some of his crew would steal his ships and desert him so he sunk his fleet before marching to Tenochtitlan. He conquered some cities along the way and made alliances with others. The Tlaxcalans became his closest allies. They hated the Aztecs because they had raided their cities for people to sacrifice to their gods.
Montezuma II tried to keep Cortes from getting all the way to Tenochtitlan, but Cortes continued his march. He destroyed the Aztec religious city of Cholula along the way.
When Cortes finally arrived in Tenochtitlan he was welcomed with gifts and invited inside. Montezuma was still concerned that Cortes might be a god. Eventually tensions mounted between the two sides and a fight broke out. Cortes and his men took King Montezuma captive. At some point during his captivity, Montezuma II was killed. After Montezuma II was killed the Aztecs elected Cuauhtemoc as their new king. Cortes eventually had him executed. Historians still aren't sure how he was killed or why, but after he died the Spanish soldiers tried to flee from Tenochtitlan. They were attacked by the Aztecs as they fled and nearly two-thirds of the soldiers were killed. Cortes managed to escape with some of his men from Tenochtitlan. He gathered a large force of natives including the Tlaxcalans to fight the Aztecs. He returned to Tenochtitlan and laid siege to the city. After three months of fighting, he finally took control of the city and completed his conquest of the Aztec Empire.
The Aztecs that weren't killed were forced to convert to the Catholic religion of the Spaniards and to abandon the Aztecs religion. Destroying codexes so that there would be no future problems with conversion. New codexes were made by the remaining Aztecs under instruction and supervision by the Spaniards. The Aztecs were severely weakened by diseases that the Spanish brought such as smallpox, influenza, and malaria. Over time, around 80 percent of the people living in the Valley of Mexico died from these diseases. Cortes founded Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. Today it is the capital of Mexico and one of the largest cities in the world.
June 30 1520, Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortez suffered a defeat at the hands of the Aztecs. According to legend, he cried under a tree that night, the "Tree of the Sad Night" on account of the sorrow that Cortés and his surviving followers felt and expressed at the loss of life and treasure incurred in the escape from Tenochtitlan. To the Aztec, it was the "Night of Victory". The tree still stands (somewhat damaged by fire) on what was then and now the main road to the Centro Historico from the west.
The popular painting by John Gast in (1872) that is titled "American Progress" represents and presents the racist and prejudice bigoted concept and ideology of "Westward Expansion" which is synonymous and associated with the phrase "Manifest Destiny." This was the warped and twisted concept and ideology that the European or "White Race" of "Civilized" superior human beings were destined by "God" to expand across.the ocean from "Sea To Shning Sea" over the Indian or "Red Race" of "Uncivilized" inferior subhuman beings. This belief gave them a subconscious and conscious subliminal and liminal excuse to attempt to exterminate and liquidate them from the face of the earth. The painting features the female "Columbia" bringing light from the east to the darkness of the west while stringing a telegraph wire in her hand as she sweeps across the land. She wears on her head "The Star Of The Empire" and holds a school textbook in her hand that will instill knowledge and civilization to the unknowledgeable and uncivilized inferior subhuman heathen savages. Traveling directly behind her are prospectors, pioneers, settlers, farmers, stage coaches, wagons, trains, cattle and horses chasing the "Indians" and "Bison" like wild beasts of burden from the lightness of the plains into the darkness of the forest. This racist and prejudice bigoted concept and ideology of "American Progress" represents and presents the racist and prejudice bigoted concept and ideology of "Westward Expansion" which is synonymous and associated with the phrase "Manifest Destiny."
- JAMES DAVID AGUIRRE
Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. This war drained Mexico out which contributed to further neglect its Northern territories. While Mexico was at war with Spain, thousands of white colonists, cattleman, adventures, and mercenaries, were coming from other parts of North America that had been already invaded and occupied looking for land and gold they could find and obtain “by any means.”
In this process, whites perpetrated horrible crimes against Mexicans, because they believed in the concept known as “manifest destiny” which in practice meant to “kill everyone and take their lands”. Men and boys were taken by force out of their homes to be murdered, the women and little girls would be raped, murdered, their homes would be set on fire, and their animals would be slaughtered.
“Texans” placed themselves in land plots, and later enlarged their population so that by 1835 there were more white foreigners than native Mexicans in the area, and called the stolen lands “Republic of Texas.”
Up until 1843 California, New Mexico and other portions of the Southwest were internationally recognized provinces of Mexico, until the U.S. decided it wanted those provinces and declared war on Mexico.
In 1844, then president James Polk confides to his Secretary of the Navy that a principal objective of his presidency is the acquisition of California, which Mexico had been refusing to sell to the U.S. at any price.
In 1845 The Washington Union writes: "A corps of properly organized volunteers could invade, overrun, and occupy Mexico. They would enable us not only to take California, but to keep it." James Polk orders troops to march south of the traditional Texas/Mexico border into Mexican inhabited territory.
Violence then erupts between Mexican and American troops positioned south of the border. Of course Polk claims Mexicans had fired the first shot. President Polk urges congress to declare open war on Mexico.
In 1846 Colonel Hitchcock, commander of the 3rd Infantry regiment, writes in his diary: "...the United States are the aggressors....We have not one particle of right to be here....It looks as if the government sent a small force on purpose to bring on a war, so as to have a pretext for taking California and as much of this country as it chooses....My heart is not in this business."
1848, Mexico surrenders on U.S. terms. The U.S. takes over ownership of New Mexico, California, expands Texas, and more, for a token payment of $15 million. Native Mexicans are given the choice to become US citizens or leave the area one year after the Treaty was signed.
General Ulysses S. Grant calls the Mexican War "the most unjust war ever undertaken by a stronger nation against a weaker one."
-The Truth Is Freedom's Blog
In 1848 several hundred thousand Mexican people (Spanish-speaking Mexicans and tribal groups) were brought under the jurisdiction of the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
This treaty provided many protections for Mexican people, including United States citizenship and security in the “free enjoyment of their liberty, property and religion”. The treaty envisioned that the Mexican-dominated Southwest and natives would be able to protect their interests by means of their own state constitutions and, of course, the United States Constitution.
The former Mexican people were, however, betrayed by events beyond their control. The California gold rush flooded that area with non-Mexicans, and an Anglo-dominated state was quickly created. The Colorado-Utah-Nevada region also passed to Anglo control and states were rapidly created. In 1912 Anglo control was established in Arizona and New Mexico. The implicit promise of the treaty - that former Mexican people would possess states and self-government was, therefore, nullified.
The United States also violated the treaty in more flagrant ways. For example, former Mexicans were deprived of their “property” in various ways. Spanish speaking property owners were subjected to a process of providing title, which made it virtually certain that their estates would be acquired by Anglo-Americans. They were also subjected to discriminatory land taxation in California by that state’s Anglo-dominated legislature. Former Mexicans of tribal affiliation “Indians” were even more flagrantly deprived of their property. The US pretended that Indians were not covered either by the provisions of the treaty by the protective clauses of the Constitution - they were fair game for everyone, “trespassers on the public domain.” Ancient villages, protected by Mexican law, were now broken up by US action.
Mexicans were also frequently deprived of their liberty, as when military or territorial governments favored Anglo-Americans, or when California disfranchised virtually all people of Indian descent. Mining regions were often closed to former Mexicans, and mineral discoveries were forcibly seized by Anglo-Americans, Tribal groups were indiscriminately slaughtered in California and literally pushed toward extinction - perhaps seventy-five thousand were eliminated during the 1850s with violence, and interethnic relations were tinged with bitterness. Ironically this bitterness was not a direct legacy the United States-Mexican War, but of the decades of discrimination which followed.
Spanish was a legal language throughout the Southwest and was used in legislative bodies, voting, judicial proceedings, and education.
In California, Mexicans remained in a majority in the south and occupied many political and appointive offices. Many newspapers were bilingual, and all California state publications were required by the state constitution of 1849 to be available in both English and Spanish. All of this changed, however, during the 1870s and 1880s. The Anglo majority wrote a new constitution which de-legalized Spanish. Anglos took over the economics and politics of southern California. Schools were transformed into replicas of the New England school house.
“Aztecs Del Norte"
The Chicanos of Azltan
Causes of the Mexican American War
1804 - Americans formally displayed their interest in Mexico during the presidency of Jefferson. Napoleon had not defined the exact boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase, so Jefferson initially claimed Texas had been part of the purchase. But Spain refused to acknowledge this claim.
1819 - In the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, the US gave up official claims over Texas in return for Spain's decision to give up Florida.
1827 - President John Quincy Adams tried to purchase Texas for a million dollars, but Mexico refused the offer.
1830 - President Andrew Jackson tried to purchase Texas for 5 million dollars but again, Mexico refused the offer.
Second Cause - Americans began immigrating to the Mexican territory of Texas and quickly became the dominant population.
In late 1821, Moses Austin - an American - received a grant from the new Mexican government to establish a colony of 300 American families in Texas.
Each family could purchase up to 170 acres for agriculture and another 128 acres for stock raising - a total of 298 acres. The government asked 12-1/2 cents per acre, tax free.
The grant stipulated that all settlers must be Catholics or willing to convert to Catholicism; that all public transactions must take place in Spanish; and that all immigrants had to relinquish their US citizenship and take an oath of loyalty to Mexico.
By 1822, 300 families had arrived under the leadership of Moses' son - Stephen Austin. (Moses died before being able to immigrate.)
When the Americans began arriving, they were the minority among 3,000 Mexican ranchers who lived in Texas - one of the least populated areas of the country.
Many other Americans felt that if Austin could get such a generous grant, they could too. The United States was still struggling with the aftermath of the Panic of 1819 and soaring land prices within the United States made the Mexican land policy seem very generous. Thus, a substantial migration began.
In 1823, partly because American migration increased so rapidly, the Mexican government forbid the sale or purchase of slaves, required that the children of slaves be freed when they reached fourteen, and required that any slave introduced into Mexico by purchase or trade would also be freed.
By 1824, the colony's American population exceeded 2,000 with about 450 slaves. They had largely excluded themselves from the 3,000 Mexicans.
By 1825, the Mexican government began to worry about the increasing number of American immigrants and asked for an investigation of how colonization was proceeding in Texas.American land grants in Texas 1838
In 1829, the investigation found:
Most Anglo Americans refused to become Mexican citizens, had largely isolated themselves from Mexicans, and perhaps most troubling - the immigrants were ignoring the slave reforms passed by the state.
In response, the Mexican government officially outlawed all slavery in Mexico.
To circumvent the law, many Anglo colonists converted their slaves into indentured servants for life. Others simply called their slaves indentured servants without legally changing their status. Slaveholders wishing to enter Mexico would force their slaves to sign contracts claiming that the slaves owed money and would work to pay the debt. The low wages the slave would receive made repayment impossible, and the debt would be inherited
Texas outlawed this tactic in 1832 by prohibiting worker contracts from lasting more than ten years.
By 1836, Americans had become the dominant population in Texas; there were 38,000 American settlers and about 5,000 slaves, versus 7,000 Mexicans living in Texas. Additionally, the settlers held title to several huge land grants - grants that encompassed over half of the entire state of Texas.
Third Cause - American refusal to submit to Mexican laws
Americans, as discussed above, disobeyed all Mexican laws in regard to slavery.
Additionally, while Americans had promised to convert to Catholicism and sign an oath of allegiance to Mexico, most had refused to do either.
In 1830, Mexico prohibited further American immigration into Mexican territory. Americans, however, ignored the immigration law and continued to cross the border.
Fourth Cause - Mexico adopted a new, centralized government, thus forcing the Mexican states to relinquish some of their power.
In 1832, Santa Anna led a revolt against Mexican president Bustamante which resulted in a short civil war in which Santa Anna was victorious.
On June 12, 1834, President Santa Anna dissolved Congress and he immediately formed a new centralized government - a dictatorship backed by the military. Several states openly rebelled against the changes - including Texas which soon formed its own government, the Republic of Texas.
Fifth Cause - Anglo American settlers' began to seek more autonomy for Texas.
The Mexican government attempted to address some of the Texans' concerns, especially allowing more American immigrants to settle in Texas, giving Texas more representation in the state legislature, and authorizing English as a second language.
But in 1835, Santa Anna revoked the Constitution and began centralizing and consolidating his power. As protests spread across Texas, Mexican officials blamed the Anglo settlers for the discord, noting that they continued to live in isolation from Mexicans and had not become citizens.
These events led to the sixth and most important cause of the Mexican American War - the American declaration of the Republic of Texas.
Sixth Cause - Americans established the Republic of Texas with the western boundary at the Nueces River.
American colonists proclaimed a provisional government - the Republic of Texas and declared independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836.
The American colonists maintained that Mexico had invited them to move to the country and they were determined to enjoy the republican institutions to which they were accustomed in their native land, the United States of America.
A battled ensued - the battle of the Alamo - and ended with the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836. At San Jacinto, Sam Houston had organized a counterattack and surprised Santa Anna’s forces at San Jacinto. A systematic slaughter ensued. After the battle, 2 Americans and 630 Mexicans were dead. Santa Anna was captured and promised to convince the Mexican government to recognize the Republic of Texas.
Santa Anna did not keep his promise and the Mexican Congress refused to accept Texas independence.
In October 1836, Sam Houston became president of the new Republic of Texas with a western boundary at the Nueces River.
Seventh Cause - Americans elected a new president in 1844 - James K. Polk - who ran on a platform to annex Texas with the western boundary at the Rio Grande River.
In 1838, Sam Houston invited the U.S. to annex Texas, but Congress declined. Why? Mexico refused to recognize Texas independence and the Whigs (advocates of federalism) felt annexation would bring war with Mexico. Further, the northern Whigs did not want another slave state entering the Union.
However, in 1845, just days before President Tyler (Whig) left office for his successor, James K. Polk (Democrat), convinced Congress to annex Texas with the southern border set along the Rio Grande. Texas was admitted to the union as a slave state. Republic of Texas disputed territories map But admission had not been easy. The United States Congress passed - after much debate and only a simple majority - a Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States.
Although the formal transfer of government did not occur until February 19, 1846, Texas statehood dates from the 29th of December, 1845.
Mexico immediately cut off relations with U.S. and insisted that Texas’s southern boundary was the Nueces River, not the Rio Grande which was 130 miles to the south. President Polk responded by ordering American troops under General Zachary Taylor to the disputed territory - the border area between the Nueces and the Rio Grande Rivers.
The U.S. government declared it had no choice but to go to war with Mexico. Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande to attack the U.S. army and on May 11, 1846, the U.S. was at war with Mexico.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 1, 1848, ceded Texas with the Rio Grande boundary, and all territory between Texas and the Pacific - territory that later became the states of New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, and most of Arizona, Wyoming, and Colorado. In return, the U.S. paid Mexico $15 million. Americans gained over 1 million square miles - an area amounting to one-half of all Mexico.
Credit: Dr. Gayle Olson-Raymer, Professor Emeritus, State University's Department of History
As usual with most "holy events" that take place, this story and Juan Diego were not mentioned or written about until a few years after his death.
Tonantzin, or "Mother Earth/World/Life" was an indigenous earth goddess worshipped and well known within the Aztec religions. It was said that she looked after unborn and newborn children, keeping vigil over those that could not care for themselves. When the spanish showed up in the 1490s, they destroyed all images of her and prohibited art depicting her.
Hernán Cortés, the Conquistador who overthrew the Aztec empire in 1521, was a native of Extremadura, home to Our Lady of Guadalupe of Spain. By the 16th century the Extremadura Guadalupe, a statue of the Virgin said to be carved by Saint Luke the Evangelist, was already a national icon among the europeans. It was found at the beginning of the 14th century when the Virgin was found in south Iberia. The recovered Virgin then inspired Christians to expel the non Christian Moors from Spain, and her small shrine evolved into the great Guadalupe monastery which stands in Mexico today.
Later, in the mid 1530s the Spanish were dealing with insurrection and resistance from the conquered natives. They were losing followers fast when the first few converts rebelled after they had prayed to the Christian god and did not find relief for their famine or murders. With very little military presence the soldiers were ordered to protect officials from the church.
Within the next decades, a native who had been baptized with the spanish name "Juan Diego" reproduced a painting of Tonantzin, but this time she was depicted wearing a modernized tilmatli that resembled a european nun and held a cross in order to prevent his persecution at the hands of the church. The religious missionaries that discovered this art realized it's potential as a tool to further enslave and pacify the oppressed masses.
The painting of Tonantzin was recreated, replacing the tilmatli with an old Christian hijab and surrounding her with angels. For his contribution to the forced conversion of his people, the Spanish allowed Juan Diego to live comfortably among priests. 60 years after Juan Diego's death, the Spanish fabricated a story of Guadalupe appearing before him and saving him from life as a poor peasant. He was idolized and added to the list of Catholic Saints.
- Credit: Milintica of Aztec Natives
Original Source: Unknown
In 1883, Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta a historian of Zumárraga (first Catholic bishop of Mexico) in a confidential report on the Lady of Guadalupe for Bishop Labastida, had been hesitant to support Juan Diego's "vision." He concluded that Juan Diego NEVER EXISTED.
Also, In 1996, the 83-year old Abbott of the Basilica of the Virgin Guadalupe, Guillermo Schulenburg, was forced to resign following an interview published in the Catholic magazine Nexus, in which he was quoted as saying Juan Diego (the indigenous guy who supposedly saw the apparition) was a "symbol, NOT a real reality", and that his recognition by Pope John Paul II would be the recognition of a cult. It would not be recognition of the physical real existence of a person."
The Virgin Guadalupe from Cáceres, Extramadura, Spain, was placed in the Chapel of Choir in the monastery, in 1499. That image was brought to Mexico on Cortes ship as his banner in 1521, and served as a model/inspiration by Marcos Cipac de Acquino, who drew her to help supplant her in Tonatzin's place, and convert the indigenous from their gods, especially their Mother Tonantzin. There were a few Tonatzin. Her temple at Tepayac was destroyed. Our ancestors worshipped her there for years, and years, and years. Even after they erected the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe on top of it, the natives flocked from all over to the site, to be near what they knew was the original temple of our Mother Tonantzin.
Per Franciscan historian Sahagún (in charge of Basilica) "At this place Tepayac, the "Indians" had a temple dedicated to the Mother of the gods, whom they called Tonantzin, Our Mother.....Now that a church is built there, they also call her (Virgin Guadalupe) Tonantzin.....It appears to be a satanic invention to cloak idolatry under the confusion of this name, Tonantzin."
HIS criticism stems from his concern about syncretism --- application of Tonantzin to the Virgin Mary. Use of Virgin Mary to keep worshipping the Aztec Mother...
Viva Madre Tonantzin Coatlaxopueh and Tonantzin Coatlicue.
Tonantzin is a TITLE of highest reverence. The Coatlaxopueh etc is a name.
By Rosa Montes G.
- Aztec Natives
The Image of Our Lady is actually an Aztec Pictograph which was read and understood quickly by the Aztec Indians to convert them and prevent an impending revolt.
- Source: Catholic Education Resource Center, Online: Catholic Education . Org
There did not used to be a "Wall" or boarder on our land. This is a European structure made by the colonizers. We didn't cross the border, the border crossed us.
Our blood is older than the concept of all nations, but not than the concept of being in a nation. It is human nature to group up and create a nation, tribes are nation as well, there’s nothing wrong with accepting citizenship of one and labeling yourself as to the country of your citizenship when referring to nationality.
If we’re decolonizing 100% that means no cars, no dairy, no guns, no steel, no nothing that we didn’t have preconquest. This is not realistic. We can’t live 100% in the past, the world keeps advancing and if we don’t, we get left behind and become a target for others. It would be great for the environment to be able to live like our ancestors, but only if the whole world got with the agenda; while we go back they’ll go forward and at one point we will be recolonized by someone else who wants our land or its resources.
The best thing to do is to decolonize our minds, relearn the forgotten identity, relearn the languages that were beaten out of us, teach self love to our elders and young ones who through the effects of colonization have been subconsciously taught to hate the indigenous in themselves. Relearn the identity and teach it to newer generations but not disowning your descending nation or it's flag.
The USA and its people seem to think natives are only form the USA and Canada, and rejecting Mexico. By only claiming Native, you don’t correct that thought - you only help it. You can tell them "I’m a Native American from Mexico, and I’m a Mexican or a US citizen (if you are); you don’t need to disown the nation where your roots sprout from as you decolonize.
We need unity and not division, and definitely not division over the flag of the nation where our roots come from.
When the white people came to our land, some spoke Spanish, some spoke French, some spoke English as well as other European languages. As they exterminated, assimilated and domesticated us, we were forced to speak these foreign languages. But speaking Spanish makes a Native no more a Spanish person from Spain than it makes an English speaking Lakota Native English from England because he speaks English.
People forget that Europeans floated across the Atlantic ocean from Europe and invaded our homelands across the entire Western hemisphere. They came in illegally then and are still here illegally today. Think about it, if someone breaks into your home, kills your family, forces you into slavery, or throws you out in the street while you see them occupying your home, would they not be considered criminals? Yes! they are criminals and we must get to the stage where we invoke justice.
Today, Native Americans from south of the apartheid border, are now called illegal aliens by the real Europen illegal immigrants. We need to wake up and take our power back!
We need to stop using the labels the U.S government created for us. By using these labels and calling ourselves Hispanics, Latinos, Mestizos, we accept that we are indeed foreigners on our own land. Many of our Southern relatives still look 100% native, no DNA test needed. I mean, if we look Native, it's because we are Native. It's ridiculous to call ourselves Latino and Hispanic, terms that refer to people that originate from Spain and Italy, when for many of us, all we have to do is look in the mirror and see that we in no way have any European in us!
Now, some of us are also lighter but let's not forget that when the Europeans invaded, many of our indigenous women, our grandmothers, our aunts, our cousins, were raped by the white man with the intention of getting rid of native blood. We are the product of that rape. We might be lighter in skin color because of that, but deep down we carry native in us. By calling ourselves Hispanic and Latino, it's as if we are applauding the rape that our ancestors went through.
They wanted to exterminate us all. But look around. WE ARE STILL HERE! Now all that is left is for us to realize it. We must wake up and help wake up our people so they realize that they are not immigrants, illegals, or foreigners.
Our people have been going through many injustices. So much racism is coming to light in this country towards our people. Now more than ever, it is important we band together with all of our indigenous brothers and sisters throughout the Western hemisphere. We will no longer tolerate being treated like second class citizens on our own land! Remember who you are! Identify Native!
By Brown Continent/ID Native 2020
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